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Didius Julianus (193 AD) -- Civil War vs. Septimius Severus

Imperial Roman Warships 27 BC-193 AD (New Vanguard)

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Pertinax, 193 AD. AR Denarius - VCoins

Candidus won a second, and decisive victory for Severus at Nicaea, in December of 193 AD. He faced the entire Pescennian army, commanded by both Pescennius and Aemilianus. The Severans suffered heavy casualities and broke ranks. Candidus ran through their ranks, beseeching the soldiers to reform and not to shame the eagles of their legions. They obeyed, and attacked the pursuing, overconfident Pescennians with zeal. Pescennius was forced to flee, Aemilianus was captured and beheaded, and the remnants of their army fled under the cover of night.

Unformatted text preview: 193 - 284 AD Crisis during the 3rd Century 284 - 308 AD Tetrarchy Diocletian 308 - 337 AD Constantinian Constantine the Great 337 - 476 AD Julian the Apostate The Golden Age (100-180AD) Life in the Golden Age - Rome was the largest city (perhaps 1 million) - Prosperity through trade and population expansion - Strong Stoicism Marcus Aurelius, emperor and philosopher) The Golden Age: Trajan 27 BC - 69 AD Julio-Claudians Augustus Tiberius Gaius (Caligula) Claudius Nero Year of the Four Emperors 69 - 96 AD Flavians Vespasian Titus Domitian 96 - 193 AD Nervan-Antonian "The Golden Age" Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Commodus 193 - 284 AD Crisis during the 3rd Century 284 - 308 AD Tetrarchy Diocletian 308 - 337 AD Constantinian Constantine the Great 337 - 476 AD Julian the Apostate Third Century Disaster Near collapse of the empire Military-oriented emperors Threat from consolidated Germans 24 emperors and 24 claimants/usurpers - 45 killed by assassination (usually by their own troops) - 1 died in battle - 1 died in captivity - 1 died of plague Names reflect self-importance Title crazy "Emperor Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximianus Invictus Augustus, Pontifex Maximum, Germanicus Maximus, Egyptiacus Maximus, Thebaicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus five times, Persicus Maximus twice, Carpicus Maximus, Holder of Tribunician Authority for the twentieth time, Imperator for the nineteenth, Consul for the eighth, Pater Patriae, Proconsul." 27 BC - 69 AD Julio-Claudians Augustus Tiberius Gaius (Caligula) Claudius Nero Year of the Four Emperors 69 - 96 AD Flavians Vespasian Titus Domitian 96 - 193 AD Nervan-Antonian "The Golden Age" Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Commodus 193 - 284 AD Crisis during the 3rd Century 284 - 308 AD Tetrarchy Diocletian 308 - 337 AD Constantinian Constantine the Great 337 - 476 AD Julian the Apostate Tetrarchy Divided the empire - Stabilized the empire Tetrarchy (4 rulers) - Office: Augustus Diocletian: east Maximian: west - Office: Caesar 2 ruled from different cities Diocletian retired and forced Maximian to retire - Chaos followed 27 BC - 69 AD Julio-Claudians Augustus Tiberius Gaius (Caligula) Claudius Nero Year of the Four Emperors 69 - 96 AD Flavians Vespasian Titus Domitian 96 - 193 AD Nervan-Antonian "The Golden Age" Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Commodus 193 - 284 AD Crisis during the 3rd Century 284 - 308 AD Tetrarchy Diocletian 308 - 337 AD Constantinian Constantine the Great 337 - 476 AD Julian the Apostate Constantine Fought wars to decide emperor - Vision of a burning Christian symbol (chi-rho) - United the troops - Gave them courage that "a god" wanted them to win Constantine Acceptance of Christianity - Edict of Milan...

Early Imperial Romans (25 BC - 193 AD) - DBA 64

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Pertinax (193 AD) - Pegasus Auctions

The political unrest began with the murder of on New Year’s Eve 192 AD. Once Commodus was assassinated, Pertinax was named emperor but immediately had aroused opposition from the Praetorian Guard. They plotted and carried out his assassination. Pertinax was killed while resisting. He was only emperor for three months. Didius Julianus succeeded Pertinax as emperor but was ousted by Septimius Severus and executed on June 1. Severus was declared Caesar by the Senate but Pescinnius Niger was hostile when he declared himself emperor. This started the civil war between Niger and Severus as both gathered troops and fought throughout the territory of the empire. Due to this war, Severus allowed Clodius Albinus, who he suspected as a threat to him, to be co-Caesar so that Severus did not have to preoccupy himself with imperial governance. This move allowed him to concentrate on waging the war against Niger. Most historians count Severus and Albinus as two emperors even though they ruled simultaneously. The Severan dynasty was created out of the chaos of 193 AD.

The Middle Imperial Roman list begins in 193 AD following the assassination of Commodus, the last of the Antonine Dynasty emperors. Following Commodus' death, the Senate quickly elected the elderly Pertinax as Emperor, who was subsequently murdered by officers of the Praetorian Guard. Prompted by bribes, the Praetorians proclaimed the wealthy Didius Julianus as the new Emperor, while the frontier legions advanced their own contenders in turn. Pescennius Niger claimed the throne with support of the eastern legions. Septimius Severus had the backing of the Danube legions, while Clodinus Albinus was championed by the British legions. Severus' advance on Rome faced little resistance as support for Didius Julianus melted away. Albinus made alliance with Severus against Niger, being named "Caesar" to Severus' "Augustus". Severus then advanced on Niger, defeating him at Nicaea in early 194 and again near Issus in late Spring. Niger was killed while fleeing Antioch, and his head was displayed to the defenders of Byzantium who had refused to open their gates to Severus and his beseiging forces. The city held out until 195, after which Severus had the city's walls thrown down.