Linguistics in a Systemic Perspective (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory) by Prof. Dr. James D. Benson, Prof. Michael J. Cummings and Prof. Dr. William S. Greaves
In addition, recognition of the full field of events and transactions present in a case moves the focus away from a narrow view of cases grounded primarily in individual pathology and problems ("What is wrong with this client?") toward a view that recognizes both challenges and resources, acknowledging not only issues, but also strengths and resources of the client in transaction with the environment. A second important emerging "perspective" in social work is the strengths perspective (Saleebey, 2002), which suggests that the vision one has of people and systems should focus extensively on their strengths. At root, strengths are not "things" that one carries; rather, systems thinking suggests that strengths are realized (made real) in transactions in which a person has the skills to engage. If personal strengths are seen as consisting of what people can do in transaction with other persons and other systems, the strengths perspective and the ecosystems perspective become deeply intertwined. The strengths perspective reminds us to attend not only to current transactions, and not only to problems, but to transactional patterns that may possible in the process of reshaping a client's reality. In addition, the strengths perspective directs attention to the many resources available in the transactional field that may support positive actions.
Ecological theory, GST, and recent advances in systems thinking have contributed to the ecosystems perspective and the ecomap, which represents a case system. Theoretical understandings of living systems offer a perspective for understanding the functions of case boundaries, the properties of open systems, and the ways in which case variables are related and transactional. After one begins to view cases systemically, as fields of connected events, institutions, and people, it is difficult to return to linear views of isolated case variables and not to notice the transactional potential among adjacent parts of the field, or to ignore the reverberating effects taking place in more remote parts of the field.
In I proposed some thoughts regardingwhat happens when typical management and leadership approachesare applied to a hierarchical organization structure. Having continuedto consider the nature of these two activities I would now liketo offer what I consider to be a systemic perspective. A perspectivewhich differentiates the two based on the structures they fosterrather than the particular activities they promote.